Prof. Dr. med. habil. Ulrich Julius

lipid metabolism and metabolic syndrome

Previous and current research


Turnover measurements
Initially turnover measurements of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have been carried out in non-diabetic and diabetic persons. The significance of the VLDL overproduction could be shown. Later on the turnover of apolipoproteins B and A has been measured using stable isotopes. With this method interesting data have been found in patients with familial defective apolipoprotein B and with the metabolic syndrome.

Familial combined hyperlipidemia
Within this disease, a family study was performed. It was shown that elevated triglyceride levels are atherogenic.

Metabolic syndrome
In a family study the heredity of the syndrome and the role of the insulin resistence have been demonstrated.

Comparison of different methods of LDL apheresis
Our group has participated in the introduction of the DALI method. Moreover measurements of the coagulation system and of the effectiveness in different LDL apheresis methods were performed. Recently a study evaluating a new whole-blood method (Liposorber D) was carried out. In the future previous studies on the reaction of blood cells to apheresis will be continued.

Drug studies in metabolic patients
We took part in several studies examining the effects of lipid-lowering and antidiabetic drugs (fibrates, statins, nicotinic acid, ezetimibe, DPIV inhibitor). Moreover we participate in a study in which somatostatin is being used in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Selected publications


  1. Julius, U.; Schneider, H.; Leonhardt, W.; Hanefeld, M.; Gabsch, H.-Chr.; Metabolic Effects of Weight Reduction in Obese Diabetics and Nondiabetics Endokrinologie 67 (1976) 96-102
  2. Julius, U.; Schulze, J.; Schollberg, K.; Leonhardt, W.; Hanefeld, M.; Zschornack, M.; Haller, H.; Influence of Diet Composition on Insulin Output, Carbohydrate Tolerance and Lipid Values in Primary Hypertriglyceridemia (HT) Endokrinologie 71 (1978) 299-307
  3. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Schulze, J.; Hanefeld, M.; Haller, H.; Messung des Triglycerid-Turnovers bei Normo- und Hypertriglyceridämie Dtsch. Gesundh.wesen 35 (1980) 1821-1824
  4. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Schulze, J.; Hanefeld, M.; Haller, H.; Intravenöser Fettoleranztest mit Lipofundin S bei Normo- und Hypertriglyceridämie Dtsch. Gesundh.wesen 36 (1981) 580-583
  5. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Schulze, J.; Schollberg, K.; Hanefeld, M.; Haller, H.;Hyperinsulinemia in patients with low fractional catabolic rate of triglycerides Acta diabetologica latina XVIII (1981) 217-223
  6. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Schulze, J.; Schollberg, K.; Haller, H.; Insulin resistance in diabetics and non-diabetics with impaired triglyceride removal Exp. Endocrinologie 83 (1984) 225-230
  7. Julius, U.; Schulze, J.; Leonhardt, W.; Schubert, E.; Hanefeld, M.; Haller, H.; Influence of physical training on triglyceride turnover in hypertriglyceridemic men Finnish Sports and Exercise Medicine 4 (1985) 159-165
  8. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Anwendung von Fettemulsionen in der parenteralen Ernährung Zschr. f. Klin. Med. 42 (1987) 1397-1400
  9. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Elimination and metabolism of a fat emulsion containing medium chain triglycerides (Lipofundin MCT 10 %) Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 12 (1988) 116-120
  10. Julius, U.; Leonhardt, W.; Noack, D.; Schulze, J.; Nikulcheva, N.G.; Jaroß, W.; Hanefeld, M.; Pathogenetic role of adipose tissue lipase deficit for development of hypertriglyceridemia Exper. Clin. Endocrin. 94 (1989) 187-193
  11. Julius, U.; Hora, C.; Groß, P.; Fücker, K.; Bergmann, S.; Hanefeld, M.; Differente Fibrat-Effekte auf das Lipoproteinprofil: Wirkungsvergleich von Gemfibrozil und Bezafibrat bei verschiedenen Hyperlipoproteinämie-Typen Fortschritte der Medizin 110 (1992) 669-672
  12. Julius, U.; Groß, P.; Hanefeld, M. and DIS-Group Work absenteeism in non-insulin dependent (Type 2) diabetes mellitus: Results of the prospective Diabetes Intervention Study Diabete and Metabolisme 19 (1993) 201-205
  13. Julius, U.; Fritsch, H.; Fritsch, W.; Rehak, E.; Fücker, K.; Leonhardt, W.; Hanefeld, M.; Impact of hormone replacement therapy on postprandial lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a) in normolipidemic postmenopausal women The Clinical Investigator 72 (1994) 502-507
  14. Julius, U.; Hanefeld, M.; Integrierte medikamentöse Therapie bei metabolischem Syndrom Internist 37 (1996) 722-730 Julius, U.; Patzak, A.; Schaich, M.; Ehninger, G.; Kamin, G.;Immunogene Thrombozytopenie, Anämie und Leukopenie während Schwangerschaft - Erfolgreiche Extrakorporaltherapie mit Immunadsorption Dtsch. med. Wschr. 122 (1997) 220-224
  15. Julius, U.; Schwanebeck, U.; Wiedemann, B.; Patzak, A.; Altmann, O.; Schröder, H.-E.; Paetzold, A.; Hanefeld, M.; Triglycerides in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL): Heredity and association with atherosclerotic findings Atherosclerosis 134 (1997) 79
  16. Julius, U.; Boehmer, G.; Metzler, W.; Schwanebeck, U.; Hanefeld, M. Which subgroup of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is the most insulin-resistant? Diabetes 49 (2000) Suppl. 1 A267-A277
  17. Julius, U.; Siegert, G.; Gromeier, S. Intraindividual comparison of the impact of two selective apheresis methods (DALI and HELP) on the coagulation system. Int J Artificial Organs 23 (2000) 199-206
  18. Julius, U.; Pietzsch, J.; Gromeier, S.; Schorr, H.; Herrmann, W. Homocysteine levels in patients treated with lipid apheresis: effect of a vitamin therapy Eur J Clin Invest 31 (2001) 667-671
  19. Julius U, Metzler W, Pietzsch J, Fassbender T, Klingel R. Intraindividual comparison of two extracorporeal LDL apheresis methods: lipidfiltration and HELP. Int J Artif Organs 25 (2002) 1180-1188
  20. Julius, U. Fat modification in the diabetes diet Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 111 (2003) 60-65
  21. Julius, U. Influence of plasma free fatty acids on lipoprotein synthesis and diabetic dyslipidemia Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 111 (2003) 246 – 250
  22. Julius, U.; Weck, A.; Pietzsch, J. Lipoproteinkomposition bei Diabetesvorstadien In: Heinle, H.; Schulte, H.; von Eckardstein, A. (Hsg.): Vaskuläre Inflammation und endotheliale Dysfunktion. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arterioskleroseforschung, Tübingen, 2005,88 – 92
  23. Julius, U.; Pietzsch, J. Glucose-induced enhancement of hemin catalyzed LDL oxidation in vitro and in vivo Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 7 (2005) 1507-1512 Julius, U.; Schulze, J.; Hanefeld, M. Ätiologie und Pathogenese des Metabolischen Syndroms Diabetes und Stoffwechsel 14 (2005) 333-349
  24. Julius, U.; Namokel, C. Effects of therapy with LDL apheresis in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia – the Dresden experience In: Kovala, J. P. (ed.): Cholesterol in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2005, 45-62
  25. Pietzsch, J.; Wiedemann, B.; Julius, U.; Nitzsche, S.; Gehrisch, S.; Bergmann, S.; Leonhardt, W.; Jaross, W.; Hanefeld, M.; Increased clearance of low density lipoprotein precursors in patients with heterozygous familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: a stable isotope approach J Lipid Res 37 (1996) 2074-2087
  26. Hanefeld, M.; Fischer, S.; Julius, U.; Schulze, J.; Schwanebeck, U.; Schmechel, H.; Ziegelasch, H.J.; Lindner, J.; The DIS Group Risk factors for myocardial infarction and death in newly detected NIDDM: the Diabetes Intervention Study, 11-year follow-up Diabetologia 39 (1996) 1577-1583
  27. Fritsch, H.; Fritsch, W.; Julius, U.; Rehak, E.; Wieczorek, A.; Hanefeld, M.; Postmenopausale Hormonsubstitution und ihre Auswirkungen auf das Beschwerdebild des klimakterischen Syndroms, auf Gewicht und Blutdruck Zentralbl Gynäkol 119 (1997) 128-132
  28. Kostka, H.; Gehrisch, S.; Freidt, M.; Hoche, I.; Julius, U.; Hanefeld, M.; Kuhlisch, E.; Jaross, W.; Point mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene are likely susceptibility alleles for familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) Clin Lab 43 (1997) 893-897
  29. Pietzsch, J.; Julius, U.; Nitzsche, S.; Hanefeld, M. In vivo evidence for increased apolipoprotein A-I catabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes 47 (1998) 1928-1934
  30. Pietzsch, J.; Julius, U.; Hanefeld, M. Metabolic basis of low high density lipoprotein in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 892 (1999) 323-326
  31. Pietzsch, J.; Julius, U.; Kirch, C.; Fischer, S.; Hanefeld, M. Very low density lipoprotein overproduction is maximally expressed in early insulin resistant states. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 892 (1999) 319-322
  32. Bruns, W.; Melchert, J.; Fischer, S.; Köhler, C.; Julius, U.; Gudat, U.; Pfützner, A.; Frank, M.; Hanefeld, M. Präprandiale komplementäre Insulintherapie bei übergewichtigem Typ-2-Diabetes – mit Normalinsulin oder schnell wirkendem Insulinanalogon (Lispro-Insulin)? Diabetes und Stoffwechsel 9 (2000) 219-225
  33. Pietzsch, J.; Lattke, P.; Julius, U. Oxidation of apolipoprotein B-100 in circulating LDL is related to LDL residence time – in vivo insights from stable-isotope studies Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20 (2000) e63-e67
  34. Kopprasch, S.; Julius, U.; Gromeier, S.; Kühne, H.; Grässler, J. Distinct effects of LDL apheresis by hemoperfusion (DALI) and heparin-induced extracorporeal precipitation (HELP) on leukocyte respiratory burst activity of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia J Clin Apheresis 15 (2000) 249-255
  35. Pistrosch, F.; Julius, U.; Wildbrett, J.; Metzler, W.; Hanefeld, M. Exokrine Pankreasfunktion bei Diabetikern in Beziehung zu Stoffwechseleinstellung und Spätschäden Diabetes und Stoffwechsel 10 (2000) 151-154
  36. Richter, V.; Rassoul, F.; Reuter, W.; Purcz, T.; Julius, U.; Gläser, V.; Hentschel, B.; Wagner, O. Effect of extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein elimination on circulating cell adhesion molecules in patients with hypercholesterolemia Amer J Cardiology 87 (2001) 1111-1113
  37. Koch, R.; Julius, U.; Jaross, W.; Schröder, H.-E. Estimation of the heritability of latent variables which are included in a structural model for metabolic syndrome Human Heredity 52 (2001) 171-176
  38. Kopprasch, S.; Pietzsch, J.; Kuhlisch, E.; Fuecker, K.; Temelkova-Kurktchiev, T.; Hanefeld, M.; Kühne, H.; Julius, U.; Graessler, J. In vivo evidence for increased oxidation of circulating LDL in impaired glucose tolerance Diabetes 51 (2002) 3102-3106
  39. Fischer, S.; Hanefeld, M.; Haffner, S. M.; Fusch, C.; Schwanebeck, U.; Köhler, C.; Fücker, K.; Julius, U. Insulin-resistant patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher serum leptin levels independently of body fat mass Acta Diabetol 39 (2002) 105-110
  40. Bergmann, A.; Schulze, J.; Hübner, D.; Weizel, A.; Julius, U.; Kreuzer, J. Lipid lowering therapy and cholesterol levels following acute myocardial infarction: A German study of 5361 patients Eur J Epidemiology 18 (2003) 407-411
  41. Metzler, W.; Fücker, K.; Schwanebeck, U.; Hanefeld, M.; Julius, U.; Kindel, B.; Fischer, S. Bedeutung der Triglyzeride für weitere metabolische Parameter bei familiärem metabolischem Syndrom Dtsch Med Wochenschr 128 (2003) 1941-1946
  42. Fischer, S.; Julius, U.; Hanefeld, M.; Fücker, K., Gräßler, J.; Towers, W.; Schwanebeck, U.; Schulze, J.; Schwarz, P. Das Vorkommen vom Genotyp 1.1 im SNP-44 des CAPN10-Gens ist im Stadium des Typ-2-Diabetes mit erhöhten Insulin- und C-Peptid-Werten assoziiert Diabetes und Stoffwechsel 13 (2004) 3-9

Curriculum vitae


1969: MD at the Medical Academy Dresden

1969-1979: Junior physian; Clinic of Internal Medicine, Medical Academy Dresden

1979-1988: Senior physician; Clinic of Internal Medicine, Medical Academy Dresden

1988-1992: Extraordinary Docent in Internal Medicine; Clinic of Internal Medicine, Medical Academy Dresden

1992-1994: Associated Professor; Clinic of Internal Medicine, Medical Academy Dresden

since 1994: C 3 - Professor in Internal Medicine / Metabolic Diseases; Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden

1996-2000: Deputy Director, Institute and Policlinics of Clinical Metabolic Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden

2000-2002: Provisional Director, Institute and Policlinics of Clinical Metabolic Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden

since 2003: C 3 – Professor in Internal Medicine / Metabolic Diseases; Medical Clinic and Outpatient Department III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden

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